Management and entrepreneurship model paper solved dr. ait

Management and entrepreneurship model paper solved dr. ait


. Mention any 3 characteristics of management • With this the time required to complete one job was

and write a brief note about them.
Characteristics of management: Differential payment:

calculated called standard time.
• Time and motion study & establishment of standard

1. Management is a group activity: – Management is an

essential part of group activity. As no individual can satisfy all his desires himself, he units with his fellow- being and works in an organized group to achieve what he cannot achieve individually.

2. Management is goal-oriented: – Management aims to achieve economic and social objective. It exists to achieve some definite goals or objectives. Group efforts in management are always directed toward the achievement of some pre-determined goals.

3. Management is a factor of production: – Management is anuran end in itself but a means to achieve the group objectives. Just as land, labor and capital are factor of production and are essential for the production of goods and services.

4. Management is universal in character: – Management is applicable in all types of organization. Whenever there is human activity, there is management. The basis principle of management are universal application and can be applied in all organization whenever they are business, social, religious, cultural, sport, educational, politics or military.

5. Management is needed at all levels of the organization: – Another important feature of management is that it is needed at all levels of the organization, e.g. top level, middle level and supervisory level. The only difference is of the nature of task and the scope of authority. 6. Management is a distinct process: – Management is a distinct process performed to determine and accomplish started objective by the use of human beings and other resources. It is different from the activities technique and procedures.

7. Management is a social process: – Management is getting thing through others. This involves dealing with people. The efforts of the human beings have to be directed, co-ordinate and regulated by management in order to achieve the desired results.

8. Management is a system of authority: – Since management is a process of directing men to perform a task, authority to accomplish the work from others is implied in the every concept of management. Management cannot perform in the absence of authority.

9. Management is a dynamic function: – Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It is constantly engaged in the molding of the enterprise in an over charging business environment.

2. What are the elements of scientific management? Elaborate it.

Elements of scientific management are:

Time and Motion Study:

  • In time & motion study Taylor recorded the time required for each motion of a job with the help of stop watch.
  • Shorter and few motions were developed.
  • Unwanted motions were eliminated.
  • The best way of doing a particular job was arrivedat.

time further helped in arriving at the production

rate of a particular piece or job.
• Taylor introduced payment plan called “differential

piece work”, he linked the
• incentives with production.
• As per this, a worker gets a minimum guaranteed

wage if he produces a standard number of pieces and if he produces more than this standard number, he is paid incentive.

• It was thought that this would motivate workers to produce more.

Drastic Reorganization of Supervision:

• Taylor observed that the worker himself had to plan his work & do the job.

• The supervisors work was just to allocate the work to be done.

• But, Taylor advocated that the planning of work, selection of tools & sequences of doing work are to be done by foremen(supervisor) & the worker has to simply carry out the work without wasting his time as to how to do that and also there should be separate for each function of job.

Scientific Recruitment & training:

• Taylor suggested the need for scientific selection, training & development of worker to carry out a specific task in a more productive way i.e, management should develop & train every worker to bring out his best.

Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the workers:

• Taylor believed that good cooperation between the management & workers would lead to increased profit for both.

• For the above suggestion to succeed “a complete mental revolution” on part of management & labour is required.

• Rather than quarrel over whatever profits there were, they should both try to increase production. By doing so, profits would be increased to such an extent that labour & management would no longer have to compete for them

3. Explain the roles of management?
Roles of management are:
1)Division of work: In the management process produces more and better work with the same effort as the various functions of management like planning, organizing, directing and controlling cannot be performed efficiently by a single proprietor or by a group of directors which must be entrusted to specialists in related fields.
2) Authority and responsibility: Implies that the manager should have the right to give orders and power to exact obedience and the manager also may exercise formal authority and also personal power. Formal authority is derived from the official position and personal power is the result of Intelligence, experience, moral worth, ability to lead, past service etc. Responsibility is closely related to

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