Enzymes, Vitamins,Hormones,Biological Macromolicules PDF NOTES

Enzymes are catalysts. Most are proteins.Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants.Enzymes are catalysts. Most are proteins. (A few ribonucleoprotein enzymes have been discovered and, for some of these, the catalytic activity is in the RNA part rather than the protein part. Link to discussion of these ribozymes.) Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants — the substrate(s) — of the reaction they catalyze. In doing so, they lower the amount of activation energy needed and thus speed up the reaction. Link to a discussion of free energy (G) and “ΔG”. Examples: • Catalase. It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. 2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2 One molecule of catalase can break 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide each second. • Carbonic anhydrase. It is found in red blood cells where it catalyzes the reaction CO2 + H2O ↔ H + + HCO3 − It enables red blood cells to transport

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