SETTING UP AN APACHE WEB SERVER ON A RASPBERRY PI
Apache is a popular web server application you can install on the Raspberry Pi to allow it to serve web pages.
On its own, Apache can serve HTML files over HTTP, and with additional modules can serve dynamic web pages using scripting languages such as PHP.
First install the
apache2 package by typing the following command in to the Terminal:
sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
TEST THE WEB SERVER
By default, Apache puts a test HTML file in the web folder. This default web page is served when you browse to
http://localhost/ on the Pi itself, or
http://192.168.1.10 (whatever the Pi’s IP address is) from another computer on the network. To find the Pi’s IP address, type
hostname -I at the command line (or read more about finding your IP address).
Browse to the default web page either on the Pi or from another computer on the network and you should see the following:
This means you have Apache working!
CHANGING THE DEFAULT WEB PAGE
This default web page is just a HTML file on the filesystem. It is located at
/var/www/index.html. navigate to this directory in the Terminal and have a look at what’s inside:
cd /var/www ls -al
This will show you:
total 12 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:29 . drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:28 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 177 Jan 8 01:29 index.html
This shows that there is one file in
.refers to the directory itself
/var/www/ and the
.. refers to the parent directory
WHAT THE COLUMNS MEAN
- The permissions of the file or directory
- The number of files in the directory (or
1if it’s a file).
- The user which owns the file or directory
- The group which owns the file or directory
- The file size
- The last modification date & time
As you can see, by default the
www directory and
index.html file are both owned by the
root user. In order to edit the file, you must gain
rootpermissions. Either change the owner to your own user (
sudo chown pi: index.html) before editing, or edit with
sudo nano index.html.
Try editing this file and refreshing the browser to see the web page change.
YOUR OWN WEBSITE
If you know HTML you can put your own HTML files and other assets in this directory and serve them as a website on your local network.
ADDITIONAL – INSTALL PHP
To allow your Apache server to process PHP files, you’ll need to install PHP5 and the PHP5 module for Apache. Type the following command to install these:
sudo apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5 -y
Now remove the
sudo rm index.html
and create the file
sudo nano index.php
and put some PHP content in it:
<?php echo "hello world";
Now save and refresh your browser. You should see “hello world”. This is not dynamic but still served by PHP. Try something dynamic:
<?php echo date('Y-m-d H:i:s');
or show your PHP info: